Tuesday, March 17, 2020

HISTORY OF BOWLING




The origins of the game of bowling and its conquest of Europe Sir Flinders Petrie discovered in 1895 in a tomb of a child, dating from around  5200 BC. AD, in Nagada in Egypt a set of objects which seems to indicate to us that it would be the first known game of skittles. This game made up of 9 small alabaster vases and 4 porphyry balls would be the ancestor of our current bowling games.

Man has always had a pronounced taste for exercising his skill in shooting down objects erected at a certain distance. We find  traces of a game of knocking down sticks of clay in  ancient Greece. In Roman times,  games of balls called Boccie appeared which brought many variations such as pétanque.

IV th  century  in Germany playing with sticks for bowling (skittles) representing heathen that are reversed with stones. The game entered France in the Middle Ages. During the 1000 years that followed, the Germans used games from 3 to 17 pins, but the game with 9 is the one that will become the most popular.

The spread of the skittle alley was simultaneous in France, England and Spain, but with different alignments and shapes of skittles. The French had straight skittles and the English used curved skittles, the forerunners of modern bowling.
In  1366, King of England Edward III was the first to ban bowling for his troops for the sole purpose of forcing them to concentrate on archery training.


THE ERA OF COMPETITION

During the period of development in the United States (1837-1875)  the game of skittles was an outdoor family activity regularly practiced by mainly German immigrant groups. The practice then moved to ethnic cultural centers where people of similar origin could enjoy food, drink and leisure activities together.

In  1840 , the first covered American commercial establishment, the  "Knickerbocker alleys" opened in Manhattan (New York). Its tracks were in baked clay and the game consisted of 9 pins arranged in diamond. This enterprise was very successful, in particular linked to the large majority of the German population at the time. Soon, the enthusiasm of this sport attracted other Americans of different origins and ethnicities.

Bowling continued to attract more and more players and enthusiasts. But soon, the money and the stakes of bets around bowling began to grow so large that the local authorities tried to ban the activity of bowling in leisure and drink establishments. It is believed that the addition of the tenth pin and the triangle alignment was a tactic to circumvent a ban on 9pin bowling (ninepin) in a public place made in  1837  by the government of Connecticut. 10-pin bowling was born.
Bans on the public practice of bowling have become more frequent and widespread in many states. Bowling enthusiasts rose to the challenge by forming clubs. These clubs were protected by law if they had been duly authorized and were for the purpose of common interest for its members.


TRACKS AND EQUIPMENT:

The surface of a bowling alley is smooth, level (1 mm tolerance) and a lane includes 4 distinct parts: the approach (run-up), the track, the Pin deck (part where the pins are placed ) and a bowling alley called Pit.

The approach is an area that is a minimum of 15 feet in length (4.6 meters). In general, the approach is 4.91 meters in new installations. The players take several steps (at least 4) on the approach to develop more speed before dropping the ball towards the skittles and communicating energy to it. A fault line marks the limit not to be exceeded to drop the ball on the track. The player's foot must not bite or exceed the foul line even after the ball has been put into play on the track. Points marked in the approach help players to identify their starting position and their release position. These benchmark rows are located 15 feet and 12 feet from the foul line, then 6 inches (15 cm) just before the foul line.

The runway is part of 62 feet 10 inches and 3 / 16th (19.156 m) long by 41 1/2 inches (1.054 m) wide. Another row of points located between 6 and 8 feet (1.8 to 2.4 m) after the foul line as well as arrows, one every 5 battens, located 15 feet (4.5 m) after the line help players orient their shots. Two long, rounded, lower parts, located on either side of the track and called gutters or gutters, collect the balls taken out of the track. Each gutter is 9.5 inches (24.1 cm) wide. A ball that falls into a gutter is counted zero points.

The Pin deck located at the end of the track is marked with 10 marks, called Spots, which are separated by 1 foot (0.30 m). Placed on these spots, the pins form an equilateral triangle 3 feet (0.91 m) side, with a pin in the middle and 4 on each side, or 10 pins in total (the 3 pins located at the tips of the triangle are common 2 sides). These keels are generally made of maple wood protected by a layer of nylon, and they weigh between 3 pounds 6 ounces and 3 pounds 10 ounces (1.53 kg and 64 kg). Each keel is 15 inches (38.1 cm) high. The keels are narrower at the neck and gradually widen to a diameter of 4.75 inches (12 cm) at its largest diameter, called the belly. Then the diameter of the keel decreases to its base which is 2.25 inches (5.7 cm) in diameter. This shape,

The Pit, or bowling pit, is located behind the Pin deck and under the reefing machine. This machine returns the balls to the players and collects the fallen skittles to place a new set of skittles.

Other equipment in the track area includes the automatic point counting system, and a fan (on the ball collector) that players use to dry their hands before playing, as well as the players' seats.

The only individual equipment players need to play are shoes and bowling balls. The shoes are rented and the balls are made available to the players by the bowling center. Bowling shoes have special leather soles that allow players to slide at the end of their approach stroke. Bowling balls have 3 holes, 먹튀검증가이드 one for the thumb and two for the fingers (middle and ring fingers). The balls are made of different materials, rubber, polyester or urethane resins or a mixture. They range in weight from 6 pounds (2.8 kg) to 16 pounds (7.25 kg). Their diameter is 8.5 inches (21.6 cm). The balls available in the bowlings are of different colors (today fluorescent). Each weight is identified by a color.





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